NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture

NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture

Edited by Willie Steele and David Pegram

ISSN 1188-9330

eISSN 1534-1844


NINE studies all historical aspects of baseball, centering on the societal and cultural implications of the game wherever in the world it is played. This journal features articles, essays, book reviews, biographies, oral history, and short fiction pieces.

Table Of Contents

Volume 32, Number 1, Fall 2023


The Cheap Seats: A Note from the Editor

Diamond Quotes

Triple Play: Personal Reviews, Op-ed Pieces, and Polemics from Outside the Purview of the Umpires
Loved It: Ball Four

Paul Hensler

Loathed It: Ball Four

William J. Ryczek

Major League Baseball Seized Control of the Minor Leagues: What Happened, What’s Happening Now, and What it Means for Players, Fans, Owners, and Cities

Mark Cryan

Much Ado About Profanity: The 1898 Brush Resolution

Larry Gerlach

The Sovereign’s Orb: Baseball as Metaphor in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine

Robert Gorman

“A Year Probably Never Before Equaled . . .”: The Klein Chocolate Company Team and its Nine-Game Major League Run of 1919

Gerald Huesken Jr.

In Memoriam: The California League, 1879–2020

Steven Treder

The 1880 Natick Boarding House Nine

Woody Eckard

A Legend Like No Other: Yankees Shortstop Turned CIA Operative

Anne R. Keene

Book Reviews

Baseball’s Best Ever: A Half Century of Covering Hall of Famers

Mark McGee

Coming Home: My Amazin’ Life with the New York

R. Zachary Sanzone

The Umpire is Out: Calling the Game and Living My True Self

Tim Wiles

Classic Baseball: Timeless Tales, Immortal Moments

Charles DeMotte

Path Lit by Lightning: The Life of Jim Thorpe

Charlie Bevis

Lefty & Tim: How Steve Carlton and Tim McCarver Became Baseball’s Best Battery

Mitchell Nathanson

Get Up, Baby!: My Seven Decades with the St. Louis Cardinals

Scott D. Peterson

The Line Up: Ten Books that Changed Baseball

Jorge Iber

Willie Horton: 23: Detroit’s Own Willie the Wonder, the Tigers’ First Black Great

Paul Hensler

Intentional Balk: Baseball’s Thin Line Between Innovation and Cheating

Ed Edmonds

Last Time Out; Big League Farewells of Baseball’s Greats

Chad S. Wise

Sho-Time: The Inside Story of Shohei Ohtani and the Greatest Baseball Season Ever Played

Jennifer J. Asenas, Kevin A. Johnson, and Mary Hyepock

Pinnacle on the Mound: Cy Young Award Winners Talk Baseball

Andrew J. Mauldin

Bat Kid

Germeen Tanas

Playing Through the Pain: Ken Caminiti and the Steroids Confession that Changed Baseball Forever

Willie Steele

Submissions & Book Reviews

NINE seeks to promote the study of all historical aspects of baseball and centers on the cultural implications of the game wherever in the world baseball is played. The journal reflects an eclectic approach and does not foster a particular ideological bias.
Manuscripts must be prepared according to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17h edition, and should contain endnotes rather than footnotes. If an article prepared in another style is accepted, the author is fully responsible for changing the style to
CMS . Manuscripts prepared in American Psychological Association (APA) style are not acceptable.Simultaneous submissions are not accepted. Authors will be asked to sign a declaration that the submitted work is not being considered for publication elsewhere. No major revisions will be allowed after acceptance. The editor will attempt to have all manuscripts reviewed by two umpires and will respond to the authors within three months of receiving the manuscript. Articles should be between 2,000 and 8,000 words in length and saved as a Microsoft Word or RTF file. All figures and tables must be submitted in camera-ready format and will be printed as is. Please include a short (no more than three sentences) personal bio.

Address submissions to William Steele at
Book reviews are by invitation only.


Editorial Board

Founding Editor

Bill Kirwin
The University of Calgary in Edmonton


Trey Strecker
Louisiana State University

Willie Steele
Lipscomb University

Editorial Board

Jean Hastings Ardell, Corona Del Mar, California

Robert K. Barney, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario

Robert Bellamy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

James E. Brunson III, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois

Adrian Burgos Jr., University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Peter Carino, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana

Richard C. Crepeau, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida

Gerald Early, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

Robert K. Fitts, Bronx, New York

Larry Gerlach, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

Steven P. Gietschier, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, Missouri

George Gmelch, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Union College, Schenectady, New York

Chris Lamb, Indiana University– Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana

David Mills, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta

Mitchell Nathanson, Villanova University School of Law

Roberta Newman, New York University, New York City, New York

James Odenkirk, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

Richard J. Puerzer, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York

Joel Nathan Rosen, Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania


Sponsoring Society


Reading List: Migration

This list of peer-reviewed materials features articles on many topics spanning Globalization, Genocide, Religion, Diaspora Communities, and other aspects on the topic of Migration.

Reading List: Sports-Related Controversies, Social Issues, and Scandals

This sprawling list includes peer-reviewed articles on subjects as diverse as the fields of play they revolve around, including Violence in Sports, Gambling & Game Fixing, Drugs & Banned Substances, Mascots & Offensive Imagery, and other controversies.

Reading List: Pandemic

This developing list arose from the COVID-19 pandemic and includes many peer-reviewed articles on topics like Fictional Pandemics, Politics, Cultural Impacts, The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, and other related areas of study.

Reading List: Latin American Studies

Articles on a variety of topics related to the field of Latin American Studies.

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